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Berliner's Teacher Expertise
The Apple Classrooms Of Tomorrow Study defined stages teachers go through in utlizing technology.
How do we support teachers so that they move to the expert stage?
How long does it take?
Do we do different support activities at different stages?
What is the learning style of those who we are trying to move through the stages? How do we acommodate those?
What can classroom teachers do to help their peers?
What is the learning style of those who we are trying to move through the stages?
Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT)
ACOT Entry stage
ACOT Entry stage support
Whole group instruction, text-based materials prevail in classroom.
• Teacher encounters issues with discipline, behavior management, organization.
• Technical issues drive teacher crazy.
• Teacher fears/feels loss of control, uncertainty and doubt with new
• Provide time for planning with peers, partially to provide emotional support.
• Give opportunities for staff to share experiences with nonparticipant colleagues.
ACOT Adoption stage
ACOT Adoption stage support
• Traditional whole group activities and seat
work still dominate, but teacher is thinking about
• Technology is now being used to teach children about technology
(keyboarding, skill and drill, word processing).
• Teachers begin to anticipate problems and
be proactive about them.
• Technical problems still an issue, though teachers
begin basic troubleshooting.
• Provide technical support to learn more about the technology.
• Give assistance in how to operate the CAI software.
• Reallocate time for teacher to talk to peers and share emotional support.
ACOT Adaptation stage
ACOT Adaptation stage support
• Lecture, seatwork and recitation still abound, but 30-40% of day utilizes technology.
• Productivity is the theme.
• Teachers have learned how to use computer to save time,
not create additional demands for it.
• Encourage peer observation and team teaching.
• Introduce and discuss alternative pedagogies.
• Give training in spreadsheets, databases, email,etc. to increase productivity.
• Introduce videodiscs, scanners and digital uses.
ACOT Appropriation stage
ACOT Appropriation stage support
• Teachers pass major milestone--teacher now
looks at technology not as “add-on” but sees the
usefulness of technology, as it is now integrated
for personal use.
• More interaction between students, creative
schedules to get kids on computers more, and
project based learning, collaboration and cooperation become more obvious.
• Encourage peer observation, group discussions and sharing.
• Discuss alternative assessments.
• Encourage professional growth through conferences and presentations.
• Examine technology integration.
ACOT Inventive/Innovative stage
ACOT Inventive/Innovative stage support
• Teachers reflect on teaching, questioning old patterns of instruction.
• Interdisciplinary project-based instruction, team teaching, and individually paced instruction are hallmarks of this phase.
• Student experts surface as collaboration increases.
• Advocate collaboration between teachers and encourage teachers to write about and publish their experiences.
• Create an ongoing support system with others outside the district through e-mail and the Internet.
• Integrators should share their knowledge by mentoring other teachers.
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